With the development of China’s economy, the demand for coal is expanding, which requires coal enterprises to improve the efficiency of coal mining and transportation. Belt conveyor has the characteristics of large transportation volume, convenient maintenance and uninterrupted work. It is widely used in coal mining enterprises. Belt conveyor has the advantages of high power and long transportation distance, which greatly improves the mining efficiency and transportation efficiency of coal mine, saves cost and transportation time. As we all know, the mining environment of coal mine is relatively bad, so we must ensure the normal and stable operation of belt conveyor. Therefore, coal enterprises should pay attention to the installation and later maintenance of belt conveyor to ensure the safe and stable operation of conveyor.
1 Installation and technical operation of coal belt conveyor
1.1 Installation sequence of main body of belt conveyor
The main installation sequence of belt conveyor is: head frame installation, middle frame and tail frame. Before installing the rack, ensure that the center position of the belt conveyor is kept in a straight line to avoid deviation. When installing the intermediate frame, it must be ensured that the distance between the longitudinal distance and the center position is kept in a straight line and on the same plane. The horizontal inclination angle of longitudinal conveying must be controlled within a reasonable range to reduce the impact of error on the operation of conveyor. The error between the center line and the conveyor frame shall be within ± 0.1 mm, and the error between the whole length of the conveyor and the center line of the frame shall be less than 35 mm. After ensuring the accurate placement of each rack, connect the racks. After completing the connection task, check the conveyor installation process and relevant positions to ensure the safety and reliability of conveyor installation and reduce the occurrence of faults.
1.2 Installation of driving device
Before the installation of the driving device, it must be checked that the transmission shaft of the belt conveyor is perpendicular to the center line, the center line of the conveyor coincides with the center of the width of the driving drum, and there is an included angle of 90 degrees with the transmission roller, so as to ensure the parallelism between the axis and the axis of the reducer. Level each shaft and drum of the conveyor to ensure smooth operation under no power and load conditions, check whether there is deviation in installation, and the allowable shaft horizontal error is between 0.5 ~ 1.5 mm. In addition, during the installation process, the straightness of the joint of the conveyor belt shall be ensured, and the straightness difference within 10m shall be controlled within 20mm to ensure the normal operation of the driving device.
1.3 Installation of idler roller at each part
The installation of idler roller is a very important step in the installation process of conveyor. The quality of installation directly affects the safety and efficiency of conveyor operation. Therefore, when installing idler roller, it must be carried out in strict accordance with the installation process. After installing the frame, driving device and other parts, install the idler roller device. The idler roller is composed of upper and lower parts. Before formal installation, the supporting wheel frame must be installed. During the installation process, the shape of the bending arc must be ensured, the design and installation of the bending section must be done well, and the spacing of the bending section of the idler roller frame shall be grasped. Generally, the spacing of the bending section shall be kept within the range of 1 / 3 ~ 1 / 2, and the requirements of the actual installation shall prevail. After installing the idler roller frame, the equipment shall be inspected and debugged to ensure that the supporting roller can run back and forth normally.
1.4 Installation of tensioning device
During the installation of belt conveyor, tensioning device must be installed. The tensioning device can ensure the plasticity of the conveyor belt, ensure that the conveyor belt is full of tension during transportation, and avoid deformation of the conveyor belt. During the operation of the conveyor belt, it will change with the increase of load-bearing and working time. The tensioning device can ensure that the conveyor belt can avoid slipping during the operation. Therefore, when installing the tensioning device, conduct a comprehensive and detailed inspection of the device to avoid rust or broken wire of the steel wire rope used for tensioning. The tensioning device is mainly installed at the no-load branch close to the transmission roller. The effective parts of the tensioning device should be installed at the position with low tensioning force, so as to effectively prevent the conveyor belt from slipping during operation, ensure the safe and normal operation of the conveyor and ensure the efficiency of coal transportation.
1.5 Installation of protective device
The protection device of belt conveyor can effectively avoid the failure of conveyor and ensure the efficiency of coal transportation and the safety of conveyor operation, mainly including anti-skid protection, coal stacking protection and deviation protection. The anti-skid protection device is mainly installed on the return belt of the conveyor, which can effectively prevent the conveyor belt from slipping. The anti-skid protection device of the fixed belt conveyor is installed between the driving drum and the machine head, which can effectively prevent slip. The installation position of coal stacking protection shall be at the connecting part between two conveyors, the contact of the protection device shall be suspended between the rollers, and the contact shall be higher than the bottom plane of the unloading roller to ensure the protection effect of the installation device. The setting mode of deviation protection device is different from that of other protection devices, which must be set in groups. The protection devices need to be installed at the head and end of the machine respectively, and connected with the belt conveyor frame with special brackets to implement deviation protection, so as to avoid the deviation fault of the conveyor during operation and ensure the normal and stable operation of the conveyor.
1.6 Commissioning after installation
After the installation of the belt conveyor is completed, the commissioning work needs to be carried out to ensure the correct installation and safe operation of the conveyor. During commissioning, it is necessary to ensure the smooth operation of the conveyor belt on the center line of the idler and roller, which puts forward strict requirements for the installation of the idler and roller. Therefore, during the installation process, all the idler of the conveyor must be arranged in parallel and always keep horizontal, and the rollers must also be parallel to each other and arranged in rows. The supporting structure is mainly linear and takes the horizontal level as the standard. During the installation process, each component shall be inspected and corrected, and then the final correction shall be carried out for each component based on the central position of the conveyor to ensure the smooth and safe operation of each component. After correction, the rack can be fixed, trial run, and then put into production. The conveyor belt can be hung by 0.5 ~ 1.5 T hand winch, and the belt strip is laid on the supporting wheel in the no-load section, and then wrapped around the drum and laid on the supporting wheel. After the reducer, motor and other related devices are installed, the conveyor belt can be tensioned, and finally the conveyor belt can be installed for idle commissioning.
2 Handling methods of common faults of coal belt conveyor
The common fault of coal belt conveyor in the operation process is belt deviation, which seriously affects the safety of belt transportation. Therefore, the maintenance of belt conveyor mainly focuses on belt deviation and other problems.
2.1 Adjust the position of idler
In case of deviation of the transport belt during operation, the position of the idler group can be adjusted for correction. In the process of installation, in order to facilitate the later maintenance and correction, long installation holes are processed on both sides of the supporting roller group. In case of deviation position, it is only necessary to determine the deviation direction, adjust in the forward direction of the belt on the same side of the supporting roller group, or adjust in the opposite direction on the other side of the supporting roller group. After adjustment, you need to run for a period of time to see the effect after adjustment. Therefore, you need to pay attention to the amount of each adjustment during adjustment.
2.2 Install the self-aligning idler set in various ways
The installation of self-aligning idler set can adopt different methods, such as four-bar type, vertical roller type and so on. The principle of these installation methods is to generate horizontal thrust to drive the belt to run towards the center automatically, so as to adjust the belt deviation. For the conveyor with long belt, the idler group will affect the belt and seriously shorten the service life of the belt. Therefore, when installing the self-aligning idler group in various ways for deviation correction, pay attention to the condition of the adjusted conveyor belt, so as to ensure the normal operation of the conveyor.
2.3 Adjustment of belt tension
When the belt deviates, adjusting the tension of the belt conveyor is also a more appropriate way. When installing the upper part of the belt tension, there are two reversing rollers. During adjustment, ensure that the two rollers are horizontal with the center line and perpendicular to the conveyor belt. Once deflection occurs, the conveyor belt will deviate seriously. Therefore, to adjust it, first observe the deviation direction of the belt. If the spiral tension method is adopted for adjustment, it must ensure that the two bearing seats can translate synchronously in equal amount, so as to ensure that the drum axis is always perpendicular to the belt. Adjusting the belt tension can reduce the problem of belt deviation and effectively improve the conveying efficiency of the belt.
2.4 Adjust the relative height of the blanking position
If the relative height of the blanking position is too high or too low, the belt deviation will also occur. During blanking, if the relative height is too high or too low, the two belt conveyors will have a vertical projection in the horizontal direction. When the relative height is low, the amount of material at the horizontal speed will increase, resulting in large transverse impact force, resulting in belt deviation. According to experience, the direction of material deviation is opposite to the direction of belt deviation. Therefore, the relative height of blanking should be adjusted to the middle position, and its height should be kept within an appropriate range, so as to ensure that the belt does not deviate and ensure the smooth and normal operation of the belt conveyor.
China is a large energy country. Due to the economic development, the demand for coal also increases. It is very important to improve the efficiency of coal mining and transportation. Belt conveyor is a very important equipment in the production and operation of coal enterprises, which ensures the safety of coal mining and the efficiency of transportation. The installation and maintenance of belt conveyor is the key to ensure the normal operation of belt conveyor. Therefore, supervision and management should be done well in the installation process, and maintenance should be strengthened in the use process to ensure the service life of the conveyor and the conveying efficiency of coal.
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