Beam forming is a technique where signal processing in a sensor array takes place for transmission of signal or reception. Various elements are combined in an antenna array in such a manner that all the signals in a particular sensor array experience constructive interference and the others experience destructive interference.
Spatial Filtering is another name of Beamforming Technology. This technology is generally employed in radio and sound waves.
Where Beamforming Technology is used?
Beamforming Technology has a wide range of usage in the following fields mentioned below
- Wireless communications
- Radio astronomy
- Acoustics and
Types of Beamforming
Basically Beamforming Technology is of two types
- Analogue Beamforming
- Digital Beamforming
Let’s see what each of them signifies
By Analogue Beamforming we mean, the eco signals that are received from each element of the array antenna, are combined at the RF carrier frequency level. This analogue beam former ends to four receiver channels, which in turns down-convert the signal to basic level.
By beam forming generally means a technique where signal processing takes that are used in sensor array for reception . There are many digital receivers in The digital receivers that are present in Digital beam forming architecture contains its own radiating element and receiver.
In every receiver noise and signal distortion are decorrelated. Many of the independent beams that are scattered in all direction are formed in a single processor known as digital beam forming processor.
The benefits of digital beam forming include:
- The dynamic range is improved
- Multiple beams can be controlled
- Amplitude phase can be controlled in a better and faster way.
How Beam Forming Processor Works
Various antenna patterns are organized at the same time as there is an involvement of Digital Receiver Technology. Those digital signals that are deployed can be used as many time as possible without any losses. Practically the received signal is converted into its corresponding frequency and then again digitized. Here Analogue to digital converter is deployed where at an IF of 75 MHz, requires a sampling frequency of 100 MHz
In a phased array antenna, every single antenna contains its own receiver channel and also has its own Analogue-to-Digital converter and a digital down converter (DDC). The presence of special transversal filter equalizes the frequency response. This transversal filter that is deployed is also known as FIR (Finite Impulse Response filter). It is tuned in a manner that it is calibrated automatically.
Digital Beamforming Technology has the advantage as streams of data can be manipulated and combined in as many ways as possible. As a result we get simultaneously different output signals. All the signals from various directions can be manipulated in parallel. The signals can also be integrated for a longer time while studying objects that are at a distant places and also helps studying fast moving objects. In case of analogue Beamforming technology this process is not smoothly done as compared to digital Beamforming Technology.